The sexually active individuals will acquire at least one type of HPV infection, frequently with more than one strain, and some people may be repeatedly infected.
The patients with HPV infection during pregnancy represent a high-risk group. HPV 16 and HPV 18 can lead to squamous cell cervical carcinoma, or anal, oro-pharyngeal or penile dysplasia and cancer. We aim to review the clinical implications for the diagnosis and the management of condylomas acuminata associated with pregnancy.
The removal of condylomas during pregnancy, especially the larger ones, can be considered in order to minimise the risks during labor and childbirth; the resolution might be incomplete or poor until pregnancy is complete.
Toate persoanele active sexual vor dobândi cel puţin un tip de infecţie cu HPV de-a lungul vieţii, cel mai frecvent cu mai mult de o singură tuplină, iar unii vor fi infectaţi în repetate rânduri.
Pacienţii cu infecţie cu HPV în timpul sarcinii reprezintă un grup cu risc crescut. Infecţia cu HPV 16 sau HPV 18 poate duce la carcinom de col uterin scuamos celular sau la displazie ori cancer anal, orofaringian sau condyloma bushke.
În acest articol, ne propunem să revedem implicaţiile clinice pentru diagnosticul şi conduita în condiloamele acuminate descoperite în sarcină. Condiloamele trebuie tratate până la dispariţie în timpul sarcinii, mai ales cele voluminoase, pentru a reduce complicaţiile acestora în timpul travaliului şi al naşterii; dispariţia lor poate fi incompletă în timpul sarcinii. Eight out of 10 sexually condyloma bushke people will be infected with more HPV strains 1.
More than distinct types of human papillomavirus have been identified, and at least 40 condyloma bushke can infect the genital area. In most cases, HPV infection is asymptomatic and resolves spontaneously within two years. In persistent infection, low-risk HPV strains can cause benign proliferative lesions, while high-risk strains infection can progress, over at least ten years, to precancerous lesions and malignancies of the cervical uterus, anal, oropharynx and penile tissue 4.
During pregnancy, external anogenital warts condyloma acuminata are the most common manifestation of HPV condyloma bushke. During this period, the proliferation and growth of warts accelerate, being frequently followed by a spontaneous regression of lesions in the puerperium 5. The physiological increase in local estrogen and glycogen in the genitals during pregnancy, in addition to the immune disorders inherent in pregnancy, favors the proliferation of the HPV 5,6.
Condyloma acuminata anogenital warts HPV types 6 or 11 are the etiologic factor for the majority of anogenital warts. Other types of human papillomavirus that have been isolated in genital warts are HPV 2, 40, 42, 43, 54, usually as co-infections with HPV 6 or HPV types 6 and 11 have also been associated with conjunctival, nasal, oral and laryngeal warts 7,8.
Anogenital warts are frequently multiple, asymmetric and polymorphic and can occasionally cause bleeding, pruritus, increased vaginal secretions, obstruction of the birth canal and neonatal infections.
These type of skin lesions decrease the quality of life, as they can be intractable to treatment, may regenerate spontaneously or remain in remission for a long period 9.
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During pregnancy, condyloma acuminata can have a rapid development of the condyloma bushke and anogenital lesions, especially during weeks 12 and 14 of gestation. HPV seems to actively replicate due to the rising estrogen levels, decreased cellular immunity and increased vascularisation and blood flow in the genital area due to pregnancy.
Anogenital warts that develop during pregnancy are usually located near the vaginal opening, cervix and the vaginal wall, and are more difficult to treat because of ulceration and infections risks. Furthermore, they are fragile and pruriginous and can easily cause bleeding 7, They may sometimes become very large, particularly when new warts develop during pregnancy.
Condyloma acuminata during pregnancy
There have been cases of giant condylomas — also known as Buschke-Löwenstein tumors — reported during pregnancy, that grow to such an extent, that they obstruct the birth canal. Caesarean delivery is indicated for condyloma bushke who may suffer from labor dystocia or excessive bleeding during vaginal delivery associated with condyloma acuminata Risk of vertical transmission The transmission of HPV from mother to offspring has been reported by several studies.
The virus may infect the fetus during pregnancy, through transplacental or perinatal transmission, or by nursing after delivery 14, The vertical transmission is due to the microtears in fetal membranes or through the placenta if the mother has genital HPV infection. The risk of transmission of the same HPV type present in the maternal genital tract is four times higher when the umbilical cord blood tests positive for the same HPV The way of delivery vaginal or caesarean section does not seem to influence the neonatal infection rate.
Caesarean delivery may be considered when the birth canal is obstructed, in case of premature rupture of membranes or when high viral load is suspected. Condyloma bushke should not be restricted if the mother is found to be enterobius vermicularis resistente with HPV 10, Generally, the newborn becomes clear of the HPV infection after the first year of life; nevertheless, neonatal anogenital, oral or conjunctival HPV lesions can develop.
The infection with mucosal HPV 6 and 11 may cause recurrent respiratory ce sunt helminti in children, which is condyloma bushke rare and severe respiratory disease Therapeutic options There is currently no curative antiviral treatment available for HPV infection.
Most treatment options for condyloma acuminata require physical destruction condyloma bushke the infected cells. The surgical or medical treatment condyloma bushke depends on the location, number, dimension, type of wart and on the compliance to treatment.
During pregnancy, the treatment options are limited, as the standard systemic treatment is teratogenic 8. The preferred method to treat anogenital warts during pregnancy is the surgical treatment, that consists of electrocautery excision, curettage, scalp excision under general or local anaesthesia, cryotherapy, and using a CO2 laser.
Cryotherapy is considered the first line of treatment; it uses nitrous oxide or liquid nitrogen directly on the lesions. Small lesions can be treated during pregnancy with trichloroacetic acid TCA applied sparingly, with limited efficacy 10, Podofilox® podophyllotoxin and sinecatechins are topical treatment options that should not be used during pregnancy.
Podophyllotoxin is an antimitotic drug, toxic to the mother, but also teratogenic; it can cause malformations of the ear, heart and extremities of the fetus. Despite the low risk of teratogenicity, the use of condyloma bushke should be avoided, as the current data are insufficient.
The removal of warts during pregnancy can be considered, despite the fact that the resolution might be incomplete or poor until pregnancy is complete 10, Discussion Condyloma acuminata during pregnancy poses a dilemma for the clinician; untreated it may affect the fetus, whereas the treatment options are limited due to lack of eloquent clinical trials.
Researchers have recently discovered a link between the strains of beta HPV in the oral cavity and the increased risk to develop head and neck cancer. Also, it is very important to understand if viral Condyloma bushke of HPVs is pathogenic for infants or if it is only a transient infection and without the possibility to cause a real disease in the future Prevention plays a key role. Achieving high vaccination rates among young girls and implementing a programme of gender-neutral vaccination can help reduce the vertical HPV transmission and, implicitly, the incidence of juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
In Australia, the national vaccination programme started in and extended to boys in 22,23while in the 19 EU countries, the national vaccination programme was introduced from The Romanian Ministry of Health promotes a school-based immunization campaign, providing free vaccines for to year-old girls 25, Bibliografie 1.
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Este o leziune tegumentară de etiologie virală virusul papilloma uman — HPV caracterizată prin apariția perianogenitală de excrescențe, uneori singulare sau în ciorchine, similare negilor 1. Până acum au fost descoperite aproape o sută de varietăți de HPV care infectează celulele pielii sau mucoasele organelor genitale; din acestea, circa 40 sunt transmisibile pe cale sexuală, însă doar câteva dau naștere unor mutații în celulele colului uterin, iar altele sunt direct responsabile de apariția cancerului cervical, în cazul în care este infectat colul uterin 1, 2. Tipurile 6, 11 și 42 sunt asociate frecvent cu condiloame.
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Condyloma Acuminatum and pregnancy.
HPV 16 predominant18 Condiloamele sau verucile genitale condylomata acuminata sunt recunoscute ca fiind proliferări benigne ale tegumentului și mucoasei anogenitale cauzate de infecția HPV.
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- Condyloma acuminata în timpul sarcinii
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