In addition to tobacco and alcohol abuse, certain viruses have been associated with squamous cell carcinoma SCC of the head and neck, causing alterations in DNA. It has been demonstrated that the human papillomavirus HPV type 16, a subtype of the human papillomavirus, is present in the oropharyngeal carcinomas of non-smokers patients inclusive.
HPV-infected cells express some viral proteins encoded by genes called E6 and E7, and can inactivate p53 protein and the retinoblastoma-type protein RBP involved in the regulation of proliferation and cell death.
Materials and method.
We present an immunohistochemical study conducted to identify significant tumour markers in tonsillar SCC. We present the statistically significant correlations between the presence of immunohistochemical markers and studied local recurrence, lymph node recurrence and risk of a second cancer in the aerodigestive upper tract. The demonstration of HPV in tonsillar tumour tissue requires in situ hybridization or polymerase chain reaction PCR for the evidence of viral genome included into the host cell.
The practical implications of an etiologic role of HPV in head and neck cancer generally and in tonsillar SCC in particular remains in question and is in relate with prognosis, treatment and prevention.
În afară de consumul de tutun şi abuzul de alcool, anumite virusuri au fost asociate cu carcinomul cu celule scuamoase CCS al capului şi gâtului, cauzând alterări la nivelul ADN-ului.
Involvement of Human Papillomavirus genome in oncogenesis of cervical cancer
Este dovedit că virusul papiloma uman HPVtipul 16, este prezent la nivelul carcinoamelor orofaringiene inclusiv în cazul nefumătorilor. Celulele infectate cu HPV exprimă unele proteine virale codate de genele denumite E6 şi E7 şi pot inactiva proteina p53 şi proteina de tip retinoblastom RBP implicate în reglarea proliferării şi morţii celulare.
Materiale şi metodă.
Prezentăm un studiu imunohistochimic realizat cu scopul de a identifica markeri tumorali semnificativi în CCS de amigdală.
Prezentăm corelaţiile semnificative statistic între prezenţa markerilor imunohistochimici şi recurenţa locală, recurenţa nodulilor limfatici şi riscul apariţiei unui al doilea cancer în tractul aerodigestiv superior. Punerea în evidenţă a HPV-ului în ţesutul tumoral amigdalian necesită hibridizare in situ şi reacţie de polimerizare în lanţ PCR pentru punerea în evidenţă a genomului viral conţinut în sintomi papilloma virus in bocca. Implicaţiile practice ale unui rol hpv cancer type al HPV-ului în cancerele de cap şi gât, în general, şi în CCS de amigdală, în particular, reprezintă un subiect în dezbatere, fiind în relaţie cu prognosticul, tratamentul şi prevenţia acestor tipuri de cancere.
Cuvinte cheie carcinomul cu celule scuamoase de amigdală CCS HPV markeri tumorali Introduction The tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma SCC is becoming a public health problem because of its rising incidence in the last 20 years, in contrast to the decreasing incidence of carcinomas in other subsites of head and neck associated to the reduced prevalence of smoking.
These tumours of oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx and sinonasal region are linked by common characteristics, including a male predominant appearance in the 5th-6th decade of life, an important etiological link with tobacco, alcohol use or betel nut chewing, and a histopathological resemblance 1.
Data regarding the epidemiology revealed that in Romania the oropharyngeal cancer represents 2. In France, during the last 30 years, the mortality in oral and oropharyngeal cancer increased by three times 1.
Обычная проверка кандидата. - Ну и ну… - Беккер с трудом сдержал улыбку.
As in cervical cancers, the oropharyngeal infection with HPV is a sexually transmitted disease which involves some particularities of sexual behaviour: a large number of vaginal sex partners, oral and anal sex. The recent increasing of OPSCC incidence may reflect the social changes regarding sexual behaviour in the modern world 6.
The anatomical sites preferred by HPV in oropharynx are the tonsils and the tongue, because of the unique presence of transitional mucosa in oropharynx and particular in tonsillar tissue, which presents important histological similarities with the cervical mucosa. Tonsillar epithelium invagination may favour virus capture and promote its access to basal cells the only dividing cells in the epithelium.
The tonsillar tissue could be a reservoir for HPV in the upper aero digestive tract. We had two premises for our study on tonsillar cancers.
Implicarea genomului papiloma virusului uman (hpv) în oncogeneza cancerului cervical
The second consists in the fact that mutagens such as tobacco, alcohol and HPV viral oncogenes E6 and E7 induce dysfunctions of two major mechanisms of cellular cycle, which involves the p53 and RBP tumoral suppressor genes hpv cancer type. Materials and method We made an immunohistochemical retrospective study between andaiming to identify any correlations between tumoral markers and the evolution and prognosis in tonsillar SCC. Materials We studied 52 cases of patients diagnosed with tonsillar SCC.
We had a first group Group I with 25 cases, where the positive diagnose was made by biopsy and these patients had radiotherapy as first curative method of treatment.
How to Eliminate HPV-related Cancers
We had a second group Group II with 27 cases, where the positive diagnose was made on surgical specimens and these hpv cancer type had surgery as the first curative method of treatment. The two groups were similar regarding age and gender distribution. The dilutions and markers specifications are revealed in Table 1.
We also studied lymphocyte populations CD4, CD8, and populations of dendritic cells in tumour tissue. Table 1. The dilutions and markers specifications For the immunohistochemical identification of tumoral antigens we used the three-stadial indirect method Avidine-Biotine-Peroxidase ABPafter Hsu and colab. Results The gender repartition of cases was: 47 male cases and 5 female cases. The age repartition of cases was: two cases between years old, 14 cases between years old, 21 cases between years old, 10 cases between years old, and five cases between years old.
The correlation coefficient between the two sets preparate pentru îndepărtarea helmintelor din corp data, corresponding to Group I and Group II, was 0. In both groups, we had 48 smoker patients, representing The patients who were both smokers and alcohol consumers represented We studied the tumoral markers on 52 cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
Thirty-eight cases were well differentiated carcinoma and 14 cases were medium differentiated carcinoma.
We present the results, that we considered immunohistochemically valid and statistically significant Table 2. Table 2.
The virus infects basal epithelial cells of stratified squamous epithelium. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins are the critical molecules in the process of malignant tumour formation. Interacting with various cellular proteins, E6 and E7 influence fundamental cellular functions like cell cycle regulation, telomere maintenance, susceptibility to apoptosis, intercellular adhesion and regulation of immune responses. High-risk E6 and E7 bind to p53 and pRb and inactivate their functions with dysregulation of the cell cycle.
The distribution of tumoral markers in specimens of SCC studied We realised a correlation between the presence of the tumoral marker of a certain type positive and slowly positive results and the post-therapeutic evolution — local recurrence, nodal relapse, the occurrence of second cancers in hpv cancer type aerodigestive upper ways and distance metastases. We have had patients who had more than one recurrence in the same time.
Our purpose was to identify the correlations between markers of evolution and prognosis in tonsillar SCC.